Welcome to the Gofer documentation! This documentation is a reference for all available features and options of Gofer.
Gofer: Run short-lived jobs easily.
Gofer is an opinionated, cloud-native, container-focused, continuous thing do-er, that focuses on simplicity and usability for both developers and ops.
You deploy it as a single static binary service, pass it declarative configurations written in real programming languages, and watch as it automatically handles periodic scheduling of your automation workloads.
Gofer runs your workloads on whatever your choice of container scheduler: Nomad, K8s, Local Docker.
It's purpose is to run short term jobs such as: code linters, build tools, tests, port-scanners, ETL tooling and anything else you can package into a Docker container and run as a result of some other event happening.
- Deploy Gofer as a single static binary, manage Gofer through the included command line interface.
- Write your pipelines in a programming language you're familar with; stop cobbling together unfamiliar yaml. (Go or Rust for now).
- Test and run your pipelines locally; No more "commit it and see" testing.
- Pluggable: Write your own extensions, shared tasks, and more in any language (through GRPC).
- DAG(Directed Acyclic Graph) support.
- Reliability tooling: Version, Blue/Green deploy, and canary deploy updated versions of your pipelines.
- Bring your own everything! Secret store, object store, container scheduler. Gofer has the interfaces to support all of them.
Documentation & Getting Started
If you want to fully dive into Gofer, check out the documentation site!
Extended installation information is available through the documentation site.
Download a specific release:
You can view and download releases by version here.
Download the latest release:
Build from source:
You'll need to install protoc and its associated golang/grpc modules first
git clone https://github.com/clintjedwards/gofer && cd gofer
make build OUTPUT=/tmp/gofer
The Gofer binary comes with a CLI to manage the server as well as act as a client.
Gofer is setup such that the base run mode is the development mode. So simply running the binary without any additional flags allows easy authless development.
You'll need to install the following first:
To run Gofer dev mode:
To build protocol buffers:
Run from the Makefile
Gofer uses flags, env vars, and files to manage configuration (in order of most important). The Makefile already includes all the commands and flags you need to run in dev mode by simply running
In case you want to run without the make file simply run:
export GOFER_LOG_LEVEL=debug go build -o /tmp/$gofer /tmp/gofer service start --dev-mode
Gofer uses grpc and protobufs to communicate with both plugins and provide an external API. These protobuf
files are located in
/proto. To compile new protobufs once the original
.proto files have changed you can use the
make build-protos command.
Documentation is done with mdbook.
cargo install mdbook cargo install mdbook-linkcheck
Once you have mdbook you can simply run
make run-docs to give you an auto-reloading dev version of the documentation in a browser.
Regenerating Demo Gif
The Gif on the README page uses vhs; a very handy tool that allows you to write a configuration file which will pop out a gif on the other side.
In order to do this VHS has to run the commands so we must start the server first before we regenerate the gif.
rm -rf /tmp/gofer* # Start with a fresh database make run # Start the server in dev mode cd documentation/src/assets vhs < demo.tape # this will start running commands against the server and output the gif as demo.gif.
Things should be easy and fast. For if they are not, people will look for an alternate solution.
Gofer focuses on the usage of common docker containers to run workloads that don't belong as long-running applications. The ability to run containers easily is powerful tool for users who need to run various short-term workloads and don't want to care about the idiosyncrasies of the tooling that they run on top of.
How do I use Gofer? What's a common workflow?
- Create a docker container with the workload/code you want to run.
- Create a configuration file (kept with your workload code) in which you tell Gofer what containers to run and when they should be run.
- Gofer takes care of the rest!
What problem is Gofer attempting to solve?
The current landscape for running short-term jobs is heavily splintered and could do with some centralization and sanity.
1) Tooling in this space is often CI/CD focused and treats gitops as a core tenet.
This is actually a good thing in most cases and something that most small companies should embrace. The guarantees and structure of gitops is useful for building and testing software.
Eventually as your workload grows though, you'll start to notice that tying your short-term job runner to gitops leaves a few holes in the proper management of those jobs. Gitops works for your code builds, but what about things in different shapes? Performing needful actions on a schedule (or an event) like database backups, port scanning, or maybe just smoke testing leaves something to be desired from the gitops model.
Let's take a look at an example:
Let's imagine you've built a tool that uses static analysis to examine PRs for potential issues1. The philosophy of gitops would have you store your tool's job settings in the same repository as the code it is examining. This ties the static analysis job to the version of code on a specific branch2.
This model of joining your job to the commit it's operating on works well until you have to fix something outside of its narrow paradigm.
Suddenly you have to fix a bug in your static analysis tool and it's a breaking change.
Here is how it would work in the realm of long-running jobs traditionally:
- You fix the bug
- You push your code
- You create a new release
- You update to the new version.
Done! The users of your tool(builds that depend on the static analysis tooling) see the breakage fix instantly.
Here is how it would work in a workload tied to gitops:
- You fix the bug
- You push your code
- All users who are working in the most recent commit are happy.
- All previous users who are working in an old commit are terribly unhappy as they do not yet have the update. And as such they are still calling upon your tool in the old, broken way. They receive weird breakage messages from their trusted static analysis tooling.
- You stress eat from having to figure out a way to tell everyone on old commits to update their branch.
This is due to the lack of operator led deployment mechanism for gitops related tooling. If you have to make a breaking change it's either each user performs a rebase or they're broken until further notice.
This leads to a poor user experience for the users who rely on that job and a poor operator experience for those who maintain it.
When this happens it's a headache. You can try different ways of getting around this problem, but they all have their drawbacks.
How does Gofer help?
Instead of tying itself to gitops wholly, Gofer leaves it as an option for the job implementer. Each pipeline exists independent of a particular repository, while providing the job operator the ability to use extensions to still implement gitops related features. Now the structure of running our static analysis tool becomes "code change is detected" -> "pipeline is run".
It's that simple.
Separating from gitops also allows us to treat our job as we would our long-running jobs. We can do things like canary out new versions, Blue/Green test and more.
2) Tooling in this space can lack testability.
Ever set up a CI/CD pipeline for your team and end up with a string of commits simply testing or fixing bugs in your assumptions of the system? This is usually due to not understanding how the system works, what values it will produce, or testing being difficult.
These are issues because most CI/CD systems make it hard to test locally. In order to support a wide array of job types(and lean toward being fully gitops focused) most of them run custom agents which in turn run the jobs you want.
This can be bad, since it's usually non-trivial to understand exactly what these agents will do once they handle your workload. Dealing with these agents can also be an operational burden. Operators are generally unfamiliar with these custom agents and it doesn't play to the strengths of an ops team that is already focused on other complex systems.
How does Gofer help?
Gofer plays to the strengths that both operators and users already have. Instead of implementing a custom agent, Gofer runs all containers via an already configured cluster that you're already running. This makes it so the people controlling the infrastructure your workloads are running on don't have to understand anything new. Once You understand how to run a container everything else follows naturally.
All Gofer does is run the same container you know locally and pass it the environment variables you expect.
3) Tooling in this space can lack simplicity.
Some user experience issues I've run into using other common CI/CD tooling:
- 100 line bash script (filled with sed and awk) to configure the agent's environment before my workload was loaded onto it.
- Debugging docker in docker issues.
- Reading the metric shit ton of documentation just to get a project started.
- Trying to understand a groovy script nested so deep it got into one of the layers of hell.
- Dealing with the security issues of a way too permissive plugin system.
- Agents giving vague and indecipherable errors to why my job failed.
How does Gofer help?
Gofer aims to use tooling that users are already are familiar with and get out of the way. Running containers should be easy. Forgoing things like custom agents and being opinionated in how workloads should be run, allows users to understand the system immediately and be productive quickly.
Familiar with the logging, metrics, and container orchestration of a system you already use? Great! Gofer will fit right in.
Why should you not use Gofer?
1) You need to simply run tests for your code.
While Gofer can do this, the gitops process really shines here. I'd recommend using any one of the widely available gitops focused tooling. Attempting to do this with Gofer will require you to recreate some of the things these tools give you for free, namely git repository management.
2) The code you run is not idempotent.
Gofer does not guarantee a single run of a container. Even though it does a good job in best effort, a perfect storm of operator error, extension errors, or sudden shutdowns could cause multiple runs of the same container.
3) The code you run does not follow cloud native best practices.
The easiest primer on cloud native best practices is the 12-factor guide, specifically the configuration section. Gofer provides tooling for container to operate following these guidelines with the most important being that your code will need to take configuration via environment variables.
4) The scheduling you need is precise.
Gofer makes a best effort to start jobs on their defined timeline, but it is at the mercy of many parts of the system (scheduling lag, image download time, competition with other pipelines). If you need precise down to the second or minute runs of code Gofer does not guarantee such a thing.
Gofer works better when jobs are expected to run +1 to +5 mins of their scheduled event/time.
Why not use <insert favorite tool> instead ?
|Jenkins||General thing-doer||Supports generally anything you might want to do ever, but because of this it can be operationally hard to manage, usually has massive security issues and isn't by default opinionated enough to provide users a good interface into how they should be managing their workloads.|
|Buildkite/CircleCI/Github actions/etc||Gitops cloud builders||Gitops focused cloud build tooling is great for most situations and probably what most companies should start out using. The issue is that running your workloads can be hard to test since these tools use custom agents to manage those jobs. This causes local testing to be difficult as the custom agents generally work very differently locally. Many times users will fight with yaml and make commits just to test that their job does what they need due to their being no way to determine that beforehand.|
|ArgoCD||Kubernetes focused CI/CD tooling||In the right direction with its focus on running containers on already established container orchstrators, but Argo is tied to gitops making it hard to test locally, and also closely tied to Kubernetes.|
|ConcourseCI||Container focused thing do-er||Concourse is great and where much of this inspiration for this project comes from. It sports a sleek CLI, great UI, and cloud-native primatives that makes sense. The drawback of concourse is that it uses a custom way of managing docker containers that can be hard to reason about. This makes testing locally difficult and running in production means that your short-lived containers exist on a platform that the rest of your company is not used to running containers on.|
|Airflow||ETL systems||I haven't worked with large scale data systems enough to know deeply about how ETL systems came to be, but (maybe naively) they seem to fit into the same paradigm of "run x thing every time y happens". Airflow was particularly rough to operate in the early days of its release with security and UX around DAG runs/management being nearly non-existent. As an added bonus the scheduler regularly crashed from poorly written user workloads making it a reliability nightmare. |
Additionally, Airflow's models of combining the execution logic of your DAGs with your code led to issues of testing and iterating locally.
Instead of having tooling specifically for data workloads, instead it might be easier for both data teams and ops teams to work in the model of distributed cron as Gofer does. Write your stream processing using dedicated tooling/libraries like Benthos (or in whatever language you're most familiar with), wrap it in a Docker container, and use Gofer to manage which containers should run when, where, and how often. This gives you easy testing, separation of responsibilities, and no python decorator spam around your logic.
|Cadence||ETL systems||I like Uber's cadence, it does a great job at providing a platform that does distributed cron and has some really nifty features by choosing to interact with your workflows at the code level. The ability to bake in sleeps and polls just like you would regular code is awesome. But just like Airflow, I don't want to marry my scheduling platform with my business logic. I write the code as I would for a normal application context and I just need something to run that code. When we unmarry the business logic and the scheduling platform we are able to treat it just like we treat all our other code, which means code workflows(testing, for example) we were all already used to and the ability to foster code reuse for these same processes.|
cough cough https://github.com/clintjedwards/hclvet.
Here is an example of buildkite's approach where your job definition is uploaded on every run via the buildkite config file at that certain commit.
- Clint Edwards - Github
This software is provided as-is. It's a hobby project, done in my free time, and I don't get paid for doing it.